Full Information of Chatrapati Maharaja Shiva ji

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Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj laid the foundation of a great empire that played an important role in modern Indian history.

 

Shivaji:-

Chhatrapati Shivjiraj Bhosale was an Indian king and great strategist. In 1674 he was crowned at Raigarh and made "Chhatrapati" Had he met the philosophical saint, Shivaji Raja would have chosen the path of salvation.

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj ensured efficient progressive administration with the help of his disciplined army and well-organized administrative units. He made many innovations in martial arts and guerilla warfare and developed a new style of guerrilla warfare (Shiva Sutra). The Maratha guerrillas were the fathers of guerrilla warfare. He revived ancient Hindu political practices and courtly etiquette, introduced Marathi, and made Sanskrit the language of government. He is remembered as a hero in India's freedom struggle. Bala Gangadhar Tilak initiated the birth anniversary of Shivaji Raja to develop a sense of nationalism.

Malojiraje Bhosale (1552-1597) was an influential general in the Ahmednagar Pune Sultanate. Shahji Raj, son of Maloji Raj, was also a very influential politician in the court of the Sultan of Vijayapur. Shivaji was born to Shahaji Raje and his wife Jijabai.

Youth -:

Shivaji was born on 19 February 1630 at Shivneri Fort. His father, Shahji Raja Bhosale, was a powerful feudatorian king. His mother, Jijabai Jadhavrao, was born into a family and was very talented. Shivaji's elder brother's name was Sambhaji Raj who lived mostly with his father Shahji Raj Bhosale. Tukabai, Shahji Raj's second wife, was very charming. They have a son named Vyankojiraje. Shivaji Maharaj's parents had a great influence on his character. He spent his childhood under the guidance of his mother. Study politics and war. He began to better understand the environment and events of the time. The fire of freedom burned in his heart. Gathered some loyal friends. Shivaji's mother Jijabai was very religious. This has a very positive impact on his life.

Married Life:-

Shivaji married Saibai Nimbalkar (Sai​​​​Bhosle) on 14 May 1640 at Lal Mahal in Pune. Sai Bhosale was Shivaji's first and most important wife.  Shivaji had a total of 8 marriages. He succeeded in uniting all the Maratha chiefs through the marriage policy.

Shivaji's Wife :-

1. Saibai Nimbalkar - (Sambhaji, Ranubai, Sakhubai, Ambikabai)

2. Soyrabai Mohite- (Rajram, Deepbai)

3. Sakarbai Gaikwad - (Kamalabai).

4. Sagunbai Shirke - (Rajkuvarbai).

5. Putalbai Palkar

6. Kashibai Jadhav

7. Lakshmibai Vichar

8. Gunvantbai Ingle

The beginning of military superiority -:

At that time, the Bijapur kingdom was experiencing internal conflict and foreign invasion. Such kingdoms started organizing Mawals against Bijapur in return for his services to the Sultan. The Mawal region is connected to the Western Ghats and is about 150 km long and 30 km wide. From his marital life, he is remembered as a perfect warrior. The state is inhabited by the Marathas and people of all castes. Shivaji Maharaj took all these caste people and organized them into Mawla (Mawla) came to them and introduced them to the state. He took young men from Maval and started building the fort. Later, for Shivaji Maharaj, Mawal's support proved as important as Afghanistan's support for Sher Shah Suri.

At that time, Bijapur was troubled by Mughal feuds and attacks. Sultan Adil Shah of Bijapur had withdrawn his troops from several forts and handed them over to local rulers or feudal lords. Chaos spread in Bijapur when Adil Shah fell ill and Shivaji Maharaj decided to take the opportunity to enter Bijapur. In the following days, Shivaji Maharaj adopted a policy of capturing the Bijapur fort. The first fort is Rohideshwar Fort.

Control of the fort:-

Rohideshwar Fort was the first fort of Shivaji Maharaj. Then there is Torna Fort, 30 km southwest of Pune. Shivaji sent his ambassador to Sultan Adil Shah asking him to pay more than the first fort, and that the territory should be handed over to him. He had already bribed the courtiers of Adil Shah in his favor and on the advice of his courtiers, Adil Shah had made Shivaji Maharaj the ruler of the fort. With the money from the fort, Shivaji Maharaj made defensive repairs to the fort. Rajgarh Fort was 10 km away and Shivaji Maharaj also captured the fort. Adil Shah Shivaji Maharaj was angry when his policy of expanding his empire was disrupted. He asked Shahaji Raje to restrain his son. Without his father's care, Shivaji Maharaj took over the administration of his father's territory and suspended regular taxes. After Rajgarh, they captured Chakan Fort and then Condon Fort. Disappointed, the Mirza sent his most capable Raja, Jai Singh, to capture Shivaji's 23 forts. Purandar destroyed the fort. Shivaji had to accept the terms of the treaty and hand over his son Sambhaji to Mirza Raj Jai Singh. Later, Shivaji Maharaj’s Mawla Tanaji captured the Kondhan fort of Malusare, but in memory of his martyrdom in the battle in which Kondhan was captured. His name was Sinhagar.

Shahaji Raja was given the jagirdars of Pune and Supa, and the fort of Supa was in the hands of his Bandhubaji Mohit. Shivaji Maharaj attacked at night captured Supadurga and sent the bet to the enchanted Shahaji Raja of Karnataka. A part of his army also came to serve Shivaji Maharaj. Meanwhile, the commander of the Purandari army died and a war broke out between his three sons for the possession of the fort. At the suggestion of the two brothers, Shivaji Maharaj reached Purandar and with the help of diplomacy imprisoned all the brothers. Thus his authority over Purandara fort was established. In 1647 he became the ruler of the region from Chakan to Nira. Increasing his military strength, Shivaji Maharaj planned to enter the field.

Shivaji Maharaj formed a cavalry force and sent an army under Abaji Sondar against Konkan. Abaji captured Konkan and nine forts. Besides, the forts of Tala, Mosmala, and Raiti also came under the rule of Shivaji Maharaj. All the looted property was secured in Raigarh. After the release of the Governor of Kalyan, Shivaji Maharaj left for Colaba. and urged the chiefs here to fight the foreigners.

Extent of Sovereignty:-

Statue of Shivaji Maharaj at Birla Temple Statue of Shivaji Maharaj in Delhi

Under the conditions of Shahaj’s release, Shivaji did not attack the territory of Bijapur, but tried to extend his power in the South West However, the Jawali kingdom stood as an obstacle to this continuity. The state is situated northwest of Satara between the Vam and Krishna rivers. Raja was situated in. Here lived Chandrarao More who had received this estate from Shivaji. Shivaji asked Chandra Rao, the ruler of Moray, to join his kingdom, but Chandra Rao joined the Sultan of Bijapur. In 1656, Shivaji attacked Jawali with his army. Chandrarao More and his two sons fought against Shivaji but they were eventually captured but Chandrarao escaped. Shivaji's move was opposed by the locals, but he succeeded in suppressing the rebellion. Shivaji thereby acquired the property of eight dynasties kept in that fort. Besides, several Mawal soldiers led by Murbarji Desh Pandey also joined Shivaji's army.

First meeting with the Mughals:-

Bijapur and the Mughals were enemies of Shivaji. Prince Aurangzeb was the Governor of the Deccan at that time. Meanwhile, on November 1, 1656, Sultan Adil Shah of Bijapur died, leaving Bijapur in chaos. Taking advantage of this situation, Aurangzeb attacks Bijopur, on the orders of Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb makes a treaty with Bijopur, and Shah Jahan falls ill. As soon as Aurangzeb became ill, he left for North India, where Shah Jahan became the ruler. After his imprisonment, he became the Mughal king.

Conflict with Bijapur -:

Here even the sultan of Bijapur breathed a sigh of relief when Aurangzeb returned to Agra (in the north).  Shahaji had already sought his son's protection, but Shahaji said he could not do so. To deal with Shivaji, he sent the Sultan of Bijapur, Abdullah Bhatar (Afzal Khan) against Shivaji. Afzal marched in 1659 with 120,000 troops. He destroyed the temples of Tuljapur and reached Shirwal, 30 kilometers north of Satara. However, Shivaji remained in the Pratapgarh fort. Afzal Khan sent his envoy, Krishnaji Bhaskar, to negotiate the treaty. Through him, he sent information that if Shivaji would accept the suzerainty of Bijapur, the Sultan would give him authority over all the territories under Shivaji's rule. Moreover, Shivaji would get a place of honor in the court of Bijapur. Although Shivaji's ministers and advisors supported the treaty, Shivaji was not happy about it. He honored Krishnaji Bhaskar kept him in his court and sent his messenger Gopinath to Afzal Khan to assess the situation. Shivaji learned from Gopinath and Krishnaji Bhaskar that Afzal Khan wanted to make a treaty and arrest Shivaji. He therefore sent Afzal Khan valuable presents in return for the war, thus forcing Afzal Khan to accept the treaty. They hid all the soldiers in the treaty. When the two met at the meeting place, Afzal Khan attacked Shivaji with his sword. For protection, Shivaji killed Afzal Khan and his cloak (wagankho) (November 10, 1659).

After the death of Afzal Khan, Shivaji took control of the Panhal fort. He then captured the forts of Pawangarh and Vasantgarh and stopped the attack of Rustam Khan. As a result, Rajapur and Davul were also captured. Panic now prevailed in Bijapur and the feudatories there forgot their differences and decided to attack Shivaji. On 2 October 1665, the Bijapur army captured the fort of Panchal. Shivaji faced difficulties and managed to take advantage of the darkness of the night to escape. It was the Sultan of Bijapur who became ruler, regained control of Pavangarh in Panhal, plundered Rajapur, and killed the chief of Shringargarh. At the same time, the Sultan of Bijapur signed an agreement with Shivaji because of his opposition to Siddi Jauhar in Karnataka. Shivaji's father, Shahaji, acted as a mediator in this agreement. According to this treaty signed in 1662, Shivaji was recognized as an independent ruler by the Sultan of Bijapur. According to this treaty, it went from Kalyan in the north to Pondanagar in the south (250 km) and from Indapur in the east to Davul in the west (150 km). This area was under the rule of Shivaji. At this time Shivaji had 30,000 warriors and 1,000 cavalry.

Relations with the Mughals -:

Seeing the rise of Shivaji's rule, he appointed his brother Shaishta Khan as the governor of the south to suppress Shivaji. Shaisk Khan captured the forts of Saupan and Chakan with 150,000 troops and reached Poon. He kidnapped Mavalli for three years. One night they were attacked by Shivaji and 350. Shaist managed to escape through a window but lost four fingers in the process. Shaista Khan's son, Abul Fath, forty officers, and many soldiers were killed. Unable to distinguish male and female in the dark, the Marathas killed many women who wanted to kill Khan there. After this incident, Aurangzeb made Shaista the governor of Bengal instead of the Deccan. They prepared him and sent Prince Muazzam Shayst to his place.

Coronation -:

By 1674, Shivaji had conquered all the territories ceded to the Mughals under the Treaty of Purandar. Shivaji wanted to perform his coronation after the establishment of an independent Hindu nation in western Maharashtra, but Muslim soldiers threatened the Brahmin that whoever coronated Shivaji would be killed. When news reached Shivaji that the Mughal rulers were giving such a threat, Shivaji took it as a challenge and said that he would now bring the kingdom under Mughal rule to the Brahmins.

Shivaji's secretary Balaji sent three messengers to Kashi because Kashi was under the Mughal Empire. The Brahmins of Kashi were very happy to receive the messenger's message, but when the Mughal soldiers came to know about this, they arrested the Brahmins. But that Brahmin cleverly told the messengers in front of the Mughal soldiers that they did not know who Shivaji was. Which dynasty do they belong to? The angels did not know; Then he said in front of the Brahmin Mughal commander, "We will have to go somewhere else. You did not tell which dynasty Shivaji belonged to, so how can we coronate him in such a situation?" We are on our journey, and no other Brahmin of Kashika will be crowned king until the king is fully acquainted, so please come back. The Mughal Sardar was pleased and decided to leave the Brahmins and send messengers to Aurangzeb in Delhi, but they also quietly escaped. Necessary].

While going back he told this to Balaji and Ava Shivaji. But the surprising thing is that after two days the same Brahmin reached Raigarh with his disciples and anointed Shivaji. After this, the Mughals tried to create partition and even after the coronation of Shivaji, they threatened the Brahmins of Pune not to accept Shivaji as their king. That people don't believe it!! But it did not work for him. Shivaji established eight major districts. Apart from ambassadors and representatives of various countries, foreign businessmen were also invited to the ceremony. However, his mother died just 12 days after his coronation and Shivaji assumed the title of Chhatrapati for the second time on October 4, 1674. The two-time event cost around Rs 5 crore. The establishment of Hindu Swaraj was announced in the ceremony. His currency as an independent ruler was established. Then the Sultan of Bijapur sent two of his generals against Shivaji to conquer Konkan, but they failed.

Death and Succession:-

Shivaji Maharaj died after consuming poison on April 3, 1680. At that time Sambhaji was the successor of Shivaji. Shivaji's eldest son was Sambhaji and his second son from his second wife was Rajaram. Rajaram was only 10 years old at that time, so the Marathas accepted Shambhaji as their king. At that time, after seeing the death of King Shivaji, Aurangzeb decided to rule the whole of India. With this, Kamna Sagar set out to conquer South India with an army of five lakh people. As soon as Aurangzeb came to the south, he eliminated Adil Shah in 2 days and Qutub Shah in 1 day. However, the Marathas fought for 9 years under the leadership of King Sambhaji and retained their independence. Aurangzeb's son Prince Akbar rebelled against Aurangzeb. Sambhaji sheltered him at his place. Aurangzeb now again started attacking Sambhaji vigorously. Ultimately in 1689, Sambhaji was captured by Mukrav Khan with the help of Ganoji Shirke, the real brother of Sambhaji's wife. Aurangzeb ill-treated King Sambhaji and tortured him to death. The entire Maratha Empire became angry after seeing their king killed by Aurangzeb because of his misconduct and cruelty. He was fighting the Mughals with his full strength under the leadership of Rajaram. Rajaram died the same year, after which Rajaram's wife Tarabai ruled as regent of their 4-year-old son Shivaji II. But Aurangzeb got tired of fighting for Maratha's independence for 25 years and got buried in the same Chhatrapati Shivaji's independence.

Governance and Personality:-

Shivaji is known as an efficient and enlightened emperor. Although he did not receive much traditional education as a child, he had a keen interest in Indian history and was familiar with politics. At times he took Shukracharya and Kautilya as role models and found it easier to resort to diplomacy. He had understood. Like his Mughal contemporaries, he was an autocratic ruler, which meant that the king held all the reins of government. The eight leading names, however, were a council of eight ministers to assist him in his administrative work. The head of the ministers was called the Peshwa, the most important person after the king. Amatya looked after finance and revenue matters and ministers looked after the king's diary. Secretaries performed clerical duties which included royal printing and drafting of treaty documents| Sumant was the Foreign Minister. The head of the army was called a general. The chief of charity and religion was called Panditarva. The judge presided over the court case.

The Maratha Empire was divided into three or four parts. Each province had a subedar who was called the governor of the province. Each subedar also had a committee with eight chairmen. Some provinces were mere taxpayers and independent in matters of administration The judicial system was based on the ancient system. Shukracharya gave decisions based on Kautilya and Hindu scriptures. Gram Patel investigated the criminal case. The source of state revenue was a land tax, but the revenue was also collected in Chauth and Sardeshmukhi. 'Chauth' was a tax collected to ensure the safety of neighboring states. Shivaji styled himself as the Sardeshmukh of the Marathas and it was in this capacity that the Sardeshmukhi tax was collected.

Imperial Seal:-

Shivaji’s royal seal was an octagonal seal written in Sanskrit, which he used in his letters and military materials. Thousands of his letters have been found with the royal seal. It is believed that Shivaji’s father, Shahji Raje Bhosle, gave him this royal seal when Shahjijijabai and the young Shivaji were sent to take charge of the Pune properties. The oldest paper stamped with this royal seal is dated 1639. Below is the sentence written on this seal:

Worshiped by the world and like the inscription of the full moon, this seal of Shiva, the son of the crown, shines forever.

(Meaning: Just as the child moon grows in Pratipada and (slowly) worships the whole world, this behavior of Shiva, the son of Shahji, will grow.)

It is a matter of religious politics

Shivaji was a staunch Hindu ruler and was religiously tolerant. Muslims enjoyed religious freedom in his empire. Shivaji gave grants for the construction of several mosques. He revered Hindu scholars, Muslim saints, and fakirs. His army included Muslim soldiers. Shivaji promoted Hindu culture. It emphasized traditional Hindu values and education. He usually launched his campaign on the occasion of Dussehra.

character:-

Shivaji Maharaj received his education in Swaraj from his father. When the Sultan of Bijapur took Shahaji Raj as his ideal son, he made a treaty with the Shah of Bijapur and released Shahaji Raj. This reflected the generous element in his character. After that, he did not kill his father as other emperors had done. He ascended the throne only after the death of Shahaji Raj, although by then he had become independent of his father and the ruler of a large empire, and his leadership was accepted by all, hence any events as large as internal rebellions during this period Not during his reign. 

He was a good commander and a good diplomat. In many places, he used diplomacy rather than direct combat. But it was his diplomacy that helped him defeat his greatest enemy every time.

Shivaji Maharaj's "Ganimkav" diplomacy where the enemy was defeated by a surprise attack is remembered with love and respect.

These lines are famous in praise of Shivaji Maharaj:

The eighth form of Shivarayana. Summary of Shivarayanachashtami.

Shivarayanch or Pratap. of the geosphere.

Important dates and events:-

February 29, 1630: Shivaji Maharaj was born.

14 May 1640: Marriage of Shivaji Maharaj and Saibai.

1642: Shivaji and Soyarbai married

1646. Shivaji Maharaj captured the fort of Torana near Pune.

1656: Shivaji Maharaj captures Jawali from Chandra Rao More.

10 November 1659: Shivaji killed Maharaj Afzal Khan.

5 September 1659: Sambhaji was born.

1659  Shivaji Maharaj captures Bijapur.

Between 6 and 10 January 1664, Shivaji Maharaj attacked Surat and captured many of its properties.

1665. Shivaji signs the Purandhar Peace Treaty with Aurangzeb.

1666. Shivaji Maharaj escapes from Agra prison.

1667. Aurangzeb conferred the title of Raja Shivaji Maharaj. He said he had the right to tax.

1668. The peace treaty between Shivaji Maharaj and Aurangzeb

1670: Shivaji Maharaj attacks Surat for the second time.

1670: Rajaram was born

1674: Shivaji Maharaj assumes the title of "Chhatrapati" and is crowned king at Raigarh. Jijabai passed away in June

April 5, 1680: Death of Shivaji Maharaj.

11 Amazing Facts About Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj: The Bravest Maratha Ruler:-

Facts of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj:-

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, also known as Shivaji or Shivaji Raje Bhosle, was born on February 19, 1930, at Shivneri Fort in Pune to Jijabai and Shahaji Bhosle. His father, Shahaji Raje Bhosle, was a high official at the Bijapur court.

Shivaji was trained in warfare from an early age. He founded the Maratha Empire in western India in 1674 and became India’s greatest warrior and strategist.

1- Shivaji was secular:-

Shivaji was against caste-based conflict but not against any religion. At a time when all the other empires of India were dwelling in their religious beliefs, Shivaji accepted all religions.

Although Shivaji Maharaj accommodated all religions, he never compromised his religious beliefs. He helped her want to convert to Hinduism. He also married his daughter to a converted Hindu man.

2- Etymology of Shivaji Name:-

The name Shivaji is not derived from Shiva, but from a regional deity called Shiva. He was given divine status because of his actions.

3- Father of Indian Navy:-

Shivaji quickly realized the importance of the navy and built a powerful navy. They believed it would help keep out foreign invaders – Dutch, Portuguese, and British – and pirates. Shivaji Maharaj built sea forts at many places like Jaigarh, Vijaydurg, and Sindhudurg and also had four different types of warships like Manjuhsmapal, Gurbah, and Galibat. He is known as the father of the Indian Navy.

4- Shivaji was a war strategist:-

Shivaji was a war strategist and despite limited resources, he displayed guerrilla fighting skills and dealt the first major blow to the Sultan of Bijapur by capturing the 'Torana' fort at a very young age. In 1655, he captured the forts of Kondan, Jawali, and Rajgarh, one after the other, and occupied the whole of the western ghats of the Konkan.

5- Shivaji helped Aurangzeb -:

Shivaji appealed to Aurangzeb to help him conquer Bijapur, but things turned upside down when two of his officers attacked Mughal territory near Ahmednagar. This prevented the victory of Bijapur.

6- Shivaji formed the Maratha army:-

Shivaji raised a Maratha army in which some soldiers were paid for their services throughout the year. Before that, the Marathas had no army of their own. The Maratha army was divided into several units of 25 soldiers each. Hindus and Muslims were recruited into the army without any discrimination. Shivaji had reduced the army of 2,000 men to 10,000.

He never encouraged his troops to sacrifice themselves, but instead took a step back and regrouped this battle was won even though they were outnumbered.

7- Shivaji stood for the dignity of women:-

Shivaji was a staunch supporter of women and stood for their respect. He strongly opposed cruelty or harassment against women and gave strict instructions to the soldiers not to harm any woman during the attack. Under Shivaji’s rule, the women of the conquered areas were released unharmed and no prisoners were taken| Shivaji Maharaj severely punished those who raped or molested women.

8- Shivaji successfully escaped from the first fort:-

Shivaji managed to survive the siege of the first fort. Shivaji Maharaj had a plan to escape when Siddi Jauhar’s army was trapped in Panhal fort He arranged two palanquins in which a barber resembling Shivaji was placed and asked them to be taken out of the fort. So the soldier followed a fake palanquin and Shivaji successfully escaped from Panhal fort by escaping 600 jawans.

9- Shivaji was a supporter of guerrilla warfare:-

Shivaji was a supporter of guerrilla warfare. They knew well the geography of their territory, guerrilla tactics, and how to attack the enemy in small groups. And they were called mountain rats. However, Shivaji never attacked the religious buildings or houses of the people living there. For this reason, his soldiers were not equipped with private horses and weapons.

10- Shivaji fought first for India, then for his kingdom:-

Shivaji fought first for his kingdom and first for India. He aimed to create an independent state and encourage his soldiers to fight for India and not for the king.

11- Shivaji was extremely attentive and kind:-

Shivaji Maharaj was kind and welcomed anyone who surrendered to his army. No one was judged on their training but on their abilities. He was extremely cautious and never attacked the religious buildings and homes of the common people.

 

 

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj laid the foundation of a great empire that played an important role in modern Indian history.

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