Full Information Of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

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Gandhi Jayanti, celebrated on 2 October, is the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, the leader of India's independence movement.

Mahatma Gandhi -:

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian lawyer, anti-colonial nationalist, and political moralist who used non-violent resistance to lead India's successful campaign for independence from British rule. First applied to them in South Africa in 1914, the Venerable Mahatma (from Sanskrit 'noble, venerable soul') is now used throughout the world.

Born and raised in a Hindu family in coastal Gujarat, Gandhi trained as a lawyer at the Inner Temple in London and was called to the bar in June 1891 at the age of 22. He then spent two uncertain years in India, where he was unable to start a business. After a successful legal practice, he moved to South Africa in 1893 to represent an Indian businessman. It was here that Gandhiji raised his family and was the first to adopt nonviolent resistance in the civil rights campaign. He returned to India in 1915 at the age of 45 and soon became involved in organizing peasants, farmers, and urban workers in protest against excessive land taxation and discrimination.

Taking over the leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide efforts to reduce poverty, expand women's rights, create religious and ethnic harmony, end untouchability, and above all, achieve Swaraj or self-rule. called upon. He ran a campaign. Gandhiji adopted the light hand-woven cotton dhoti as a symbol of India's rural poor. He lived in a self-sufficient residential community, eating simple food and fasting for long periods as a means of introspection and political protest. Sparking anti-colonial nationalism among ordinary Indians, Gandhi took the lead in challenging the salt tax imposed by the British with the 400 km (250 mi) Dandi Salt March in 1930 and called for the British to leave India in 1942. They put many people in jail. In South Africa and India several times and for many years.

Gandhi's vision of an independent India based on religious pluralism was challenged in the early 1940s by Muslim nationalism, which demanded a separate land for Muslims within British India. Britain granted independence in August 1947, but the British Indian Empire split into two overlords: Hindu-dominated India and Muslim-majority Pakistan. As many displaced Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs migrated to their new lands, religious fighting broke out, especially in Punjab and Bengal. In the absence of official independence celebrations, Gandhi visited the affected areas, trying to defuse the crisis. In the months that followed, he conducted several hunger strikes to stop the religious fighting. The last of these journeys began in Delhi on January 12, 1948, when he was 78 years old. The awareness spread among some Hindus in India that Gandhi was too strict in his defense of Pakistan and Indian Muslims. In this, Nathuram Godse, a staunch Hindu nationalist from Pune in western India, fired three bullets into Gandhiji's chest during an all-religion prayer meeting in Delhi on January 30, 1948.

Gandhi's birthday, October 2, is a national holiday in India and is celebrated throughout the world as Gandhi Jayanti, the International Day of NonViolence. In post-colonial India, Gandhi is considered the Father of the Nation. He was also known as Bapu during the Indian nationalist movement and for several decades thereafter.


Early life and history:-

parents-: 

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on 2 October 1869 in the Gujarati Hindu Modhabania in the coastal town of Porbandar (also known as Sudamapuri) on the Kathiawar Peninsula, part of the small principality of Porbandar in the British Raj’s Kathiawar Agency Family. Stay here. His father, Karamchand Uttamchand Gandhi (1822-1885), served as the Diwan (Prime Minister) of the Porbandar state. His family originated from the village of Kutiana in the then-state of Junagadh.

Although he was only a civil servant in the state administration and had only elementary education, Karamchand Ego proved to be a capable prime minister. He married four times during his career. His first two sons and wives died young, each of them having a daughter, leaving the third childless. In 1857 he asked permission to remarry his third wife; In the same year, he married Putlibai (1844–1891) of the leading Vaishnava family of Junagadh.

On October 2, 1869, Putlibai’s last child, Mohandas, was born in a windowless room on the first floor of the Gandhi family residence in Porbandar.

In 1874, Gandhi’s father Karamchand left Porbandar for the small state of Rajkot, where he became an adviser to the ruler Thakur Saheb; Although Rajkot remained a less prestigious state than Porbandar, British regional political institutions remained there, enjoying some protection from the Rajya Diwan of Javana. In 1876, Karamchand was appointed Diwan of Rajkot and his brother Tulsidas Diwan of Porbandar. His family later joined him in Rajkot.

childhood: -

As a child, Gandhiji's sister Ralette described him as "very playful, playful and traveling". One of his favorite pastimes was breaking dog ears. During his childhood, Gandhiji was greatly influenced by Indian classics, especially the story of Sravana and Raja Harish Chandra.  He wrote of Bardan: “We continued to be our tormentors, countless times playing the role of Harishchandra.” Gandhi’s early self-identity was based on this epic portrayal of truth and love as the highest values.

His family had a liberal religious background. Gandhiji's father Karamchand was a Hindu and his mother Putlibai belonged to a deep Vaishnava Hindu family. Gandhiji's father belonged to the Modhabania caste of the Vaishya caste. Its Mahatari included a collection of religious texts, all derived from the medieval Sajda tradition, based on devotion to Krishna, the Bhagavad Gita, the Bhagavad Purana, and 14 teaching books organized in this tradition. Contains the essence of the Vedas, the Quran, and the Bible. Mahatari, a great devotee of Gandhiji, was very impressed and said, "I never thought of taking my food without daily prayers... I used to take the most difficult fast and fulfill it without any hesitation. The fast was of no use." " For three days." Stay." their.

At the age of 9, Gandhiji joined the local school near his home in Rajkot. There he studied the basics of mathematics, history, and Gujarati geography.  At the age of 11, he attended Alfred High School, Rajkot High School. They may be average students, winning many awards, but others may be poor students with no interest in sports; His only companions were books and school lessons.

Marriage:-

In May 1883, 13-year-old Mohandas married 14-year-old Kasturbai Gokuldas Kapadia (her first name was often spelled "Kasturba" and affectionately as "Ba") in an arranged marriage common in the region at that time. He missed a year of school in the process but was later allowed to make up for it by accelerating his studies. Their wedding was a joint event, which was also attended by her brother and cousin. Recalling her wedding day, she once said, "Since we did not know much about marriage, for us it just meant wearing new clothes, eating sweets, and playing with relatives because the prevailing tradition was in teenage years. Are from." The bride has to spend more time with her family." 'At home and away from her husband.'

Writing many years later, Mohandas tragically described the sensual feelings he felt for his new bride, "Even at school I used to think about her and the thought of the night and our next meeting always haunted me". He was jealous of her and remembered her possessing him, like... When he was with his friends in the temple, his feelings for her were lechery

Gandhiji's father, Karamchand, died in 1885. Gandhiji, then 16, and his 17-year-old wife had their first child, who survived only a few days. Gandhiji was worried about those two incident. The Gandhi family had four other children, all sons: Harilal, born in 1888; Manilal, born in 1892; Ramdas, born 1897; and Devdas, who b.

In November 1887, at the age of 18, Gandhi graduated from high school in Ahmedabad. In January 1888, Bhavnagar joined the state's Samaldas College, which was at that time the only degree-granting institution of higher education in the region. However, he left his studies and returned to his family in Porbandar.

Three years in London:-

law student -

Gandhiji had left the cheapest college in Bombay. Mavji Dave Joshiji, a Brahmin priest and family friend, advised Gandhi and his family to consider studying law in London.  His mother was not comfortable leaving Gandhiji's wife and family so far from home. Gandhiji's uncle Tulsidas also tried to convince his brother that Gandhi wanted to go. To appease his wife and mother, Gandhiji promised his mother that he would abstain from meat, alcohol, and women. Gandhi's brother Lakshmidas, now a lawyer, appreciated and supported Gandhi's plan to study in London. Putlibai gave her permission and blessings to Gandhiji.

On 10 August 1888, at the age of 18, Gandhiji left Porbandar for Mumbai, then known as Bombay. Upon arrival, he stayed with the local Modhabaniya community, whose elders warned him that England would tempt them to compromise their religion and adopt Western ways of eating and drinking, but despite Gandhiji's mother's promises and her blessings, He was ostracized from there. His caste. Gandhiji did not pay any attention to this and left Bombay for London with his brother on 4 September. Gandhiji attended University College, London, and studied English literature with Henry Morley from 1888–1889.

He also attended the Inns of Court Law School at the Inner Temple to become a barrister. His childhood shyness and isolation continued into adolescence. When he came to London he retained these qualities but overcame his shyness to practice law by joining a public speaking practice group.

He had a keen interest in the welfare of the poor community on the London docks. In 1889 a bitter trade dispute broke out in London with shipowners, sailors, shipbuilders, and factory girls. striking for better wages and conditions. The attackers joined the strike in solidarity, which was successful with the mediation of Cardinal Manning.

Vegetarianism and Committee Work:-

Gandhiji's time in London was influenced by a promise he made to his mother. She tried to adopt "English" practices, including dance lessons. But he disliked the bland vegetarian food served by his landlord and often went hungry until he founded one of the few vegetarian restaurants in London, influenced by the writings of Henry Salt, the president of the London Vegetarian Society They did not join the guardianship of the patron. Arnold Hills He was elected to the executive committee An accomplishment of his time on the committee was the establishment of the Bayswater Chapter. Some of the vegetarians he met were members of the Theosophical Society, founded in 1875 for universal brotherhood and devoted to the study of Buddhist and Hindu literature, and they encouraged Gandhi to read, translate, and execute the original texts of the Bhagavad Gita. There is the Gita.

Gandhi had a friendly and productive relationship with Hills, but they had different views on committee member Thomas Ellison’s continued LVS membership Despite Gandhi’s natural shyness and aversion to confrontation, his trial is the first known example of a challenge to Gandhi’s authority.

Alison promoted new forms of birth control, but Hills believed it undermined public morality. He felt that veganism was an ethical movement and that Allinson should not be a member of the LVS. Gandhi shared Hills’ views on the dangers of birth control but defended Allison’s right to opt-out. It would be difficult to challenge Gandhiji’s mountains; Hills was 12 years his senior and, unlike Gandhi, quite outspoken. He was a member of the L.V.S. He was also a very accomplished player who later founded the West Ham United football club. In his 1927 autobiography, vol. Gandhi wrote:

I was very interested in this question…I had great respect for Mr. Hills and his generosity. But I thought it quite unfair to expel a man from a vegetarian society because he refused to accept Puritan morality as an object of society.

A motion was made to remove Allinson which was discussed and voted upon by the committee| Gandhi’s embarrassment at the committee meeting hampered Allison’s defense. He wrote his ideas on paper, but Les could not read his reasoning, so President Hills asked another committee member to read it for him. Although many other members of the committee agreed with Gandhi, the vote was lost and Allinson was removed There were no hard feelings when Hills proposed a toast at the LVS farewell banquet in honor of Gandhiji's return to India.

Called at the bar:-

At the age of 22, Gandhi was called to the bar in June 1891 and left London for India, where he learned that his mother had died in London, his family accepted the news and from him, the law withdrew efforts to establish practice. failed in Bombay because he was psychologically unable to cross-examine witnesses. He prepares petitions for the petitioners and returns to Rajkot for a modest livelihood, but runs into Sam Sunny, a British officer, and is forced to stay.

Civil rights activist in South Africa (1893-1914):-

In April 1893, at the age of 23, Gandhiji went to South Africa to become the lawyer of Abdullah's cousin. 
They were not allowed to sit in the stagecoach with European passengers and had to sit on the floor next to the driver, were beaten if they refused, were thrown into a ditch if they dared go near the house, another On the occasion he had refused to go. The first class wondered whether they should return to India or protest for their rights. They decided to protest and were able to board the train the next day. In another incident, a judge in a Durban court ordered Gandhiji to remove his turban, which he refused to do. Gandhiji was thrown from the footpath onto the road by a police officer without any warning.

According to Harman, when Gandhi came to South Africa he considered himself "a Britisher first and an Indian second". But the prejudice that Gandhiji felt and saw towards the British and his fellow Indians troubled him greatly. He thought it was humiliating, struggling to understand how some people could feel respected, superior, or happy in such an inhumane practice. Gandhiji began to question the position of his people in the British Empire.

By moving him to South Africa, Abdullah's case came to an end in May 1894. As Gandhi prepared to return to India, the Indian community held a farewell party for him, but discriminatory provocations from the new Natal government led Gandhi to extend his original stay in South Africa. He planned to help oppose a bill to reject Indians the right to vote, a right then proposed as a special European right. Cheku has asked the district secretaries to send the details of membership of district-wise associations. Cheku has asked the district secretaries to send the details of membership of district-wise associations. Although unable to prevent the bill from being passed, his campaign was able to draw attention to the grievances of Indians in South Africa. He helped establish the Natal Indian Congress in 1894 and through this organization formed the Indian community in South Africa as a united political force. When Gandhi arrived in Durban in January 1897, he was attacked by a white mob.

European, Indian and African:-

When Gandhiji was in South Africa, his focus was on Indians and Africans. Initially, he had no interest in politics. But this changed when she faced discrimination and harassment, such as being thrown out of a train compartment by a white railway official because of the color of her skin. After many such incidents with white people in South Africa, Gandhiji changed his thinking and focus and realized that the struggle for rights should also be opposed, he entered politics by forming the Indian Congress. According to Ashwin Desai and Ghulam Waheed, Gandhi's views on casteism were controversial in some respects, but this later changed. [further clarification needed] Gandhiji faced persecution in South Africa from the very beginning. Like other people of color, white officials rejected their rights and bullied them in newspapers and the streets, calling them "parasites," "semi-barbarians," "cancers," and fools, the yellow man said. And other epithets people spit at them as expressions of racial hatred.

Indian Freedom Struggle (1915-1947):-

At the request of Gopal Krishna Gokhale, C.F. As Andrews has shown, Gandhi returned to India in 1915. He achieved international fame as a prominent Indian nationalist, theorist, and organizer.

Gandhi joined the Indian National Congress and became acquainted with Indian affairs, politics, and the people mainly through Gokhale. Gokhale was a prominent Congress party leader who was also known for his insistence on working within a system of moderation and restraint. Gandhiji adopted Gokhale's liberal outlook based on the British Whiggish tradition and transformed it into an Indian version.

Gandhiji took over the leadership of the Congress in 1920 and began raising demands, until the Indian National Congress on January 26, 1930, declared India's independence. The British refused to accept the declaration, but negotiations began and by 1930 the Congress had gained a role in the provinces government. When the Viceroy declared war without consulting Germany in September 1939, Gandhi and the Congress Party withdrew their support for the Raj. In 1942, tensions escalated to such an extent that Gandhi immediately demanded independence and the British responded by jailing him and thousands of other Congress leaders. Meanwhile, despite Gandhiji's strong opposition, the Muslim League cooperated with Britain and demanded a separate Muslim state, Pakistan. In August 1947, the British partitioned the land with India and Pakistan and achieved independence on conditions that Gandhiji had rejected.

Salt Satyagraha (Salt March):-

After his early release from prison for political offenses in 1924, Gandhi continued his pursuit of Swaraj in the 1920s. In December 1928, he submitted a resolution to the Calcutta Congress calling on the British government to grant India Dominion status after his leadership's decline in Muslim support or face a new campaign of non-cooperation aimed at full independence for the country had to fall. to do the job. With Indian fighters. Subhash Chandra Bose, Bhagat Singh, and others supported the Khilafat movement after its failure to save the Khilafat State in Turkey in the First World War Values were questioned. And a non-violent way. While many Hindu leaders demanded immediate independence, Gandhi changed his call and waited for one year instead of two.

The British did not respond favorably to Gandhiji's proposal. British political leaders like Lord Birkenhead and Winston Churchill announced the opposition of “Gandhi’s supporters” in conversations with European diplomats sympathetic to Indian demands. The Indian flag was hoisted in Lahore on 31 December Gandhiji led the Congress in Lahore on January 26, 1930, in celebrating India's Independence Day. The day was often celebrated by other Indian institutions. In March 1930, Gandhi launched a new satyagraha against the British salt tax. Gandhi sent an ultimatum in the form of a letter personally addressed to Lord Irvine, Viceroy of India, on March 2nd. In the letter, Gandhi condemned British rule, saying it had "impoverished silent millions with a system of progressive exploitation and disastrous military and civil administration... It has reduced us to political slavery" and called it " Gandhi also mentioned in the letter that the Vice President of India was paid five thousand times the average income. In the letter, Gandhi also stressed continuing non-violent protests.

This was highlighted by the publication of the Salt March to Dandi from March 12 to April 6, in which he and 78 volunteers traveled 388 kilometers (241 miles) from Ahmedabad to Dandi in Gujarat and produced the salt themselves It was said. law. It took 25 days to cover the 240 miles and Gandhi often spoke to huge crowds along the way. Thousands of Indians also joined him in Dandi. He was placed under house arrest under the 1827 Act for a planned protest on May 5th. On May 21, without his knowledge, a protest was being held at the Dharma Salt Factory. Webb Miller, a nervous American journalist, described the British reaction:


Gandhiji's men got up very quietly and stopped a hundred yards away from the shop. A group selected from the crowd advanced through the ditch and approached the barbed wire stockpile... In a word, a large number of local police attacked the invaders and fired steel bullets at them. They started beating him on the head with lathis [long bamboo sticks]. None of the spectators raised their hands to escape the beating. They went down like nine pegs. From where I stood I could hear the painful blows of the lathis on the helpless skulls... The fallen were either unconscious or curled up with broken skulls and broken shoulders.

This continued for hours until approximately 300 or more protesters were beaten, many seriously injured and two died. He never showed any resistance.

This was one of his most successful campaigns to break British control in India; Britain responded by jailing more than 60,000 people. But Congress's estimate is 90,000. Jawaharlal Nehru, one of Gandhiji's generals, was one of them.

According to Sarma, Gandhi recruited women to participate in the salt tax campaign and the boycott of foreign products, which gave many women new confidence and respect in the mainstream of Indian public life. But other scholars, such as Marilyn French, say that Gandhi refused to join women's civil disobedience movements because she feared she would be accused of using women as political shields. When women were asked to join the movement and take part in public demonstrations, Gandhi asked volunteers to seek permission from the guards and asked only those women who could care for children to join him. , Despite Gandhi's fears and ideas, Indian women...thousands joined the Salt March to challenge the British salt tax and salt mining monopoly. After Gandhi's arrest, women themselves took to the streets and picketed shops and faced fighting and verbal abuse from British officials inspired by Gandhi.

Congress policy:-

Gandhiji resigned from the Congress Party in 1934. He disagreed with the party's position but believed that if he resigned, his popularity among Indians would not diminish the party's membership, which included communists, socialists, trade unionists, students, religious conservatives, and Businessmen. Strong convictions and the opportunity to hear these diverse voices. Gandhi also wanted to avoid being targeted by imperial propaganda by leading a party that had accepted a temporary political compromise with the Raj.

Gandhi returned to active politics in 1936 with Nehru's presidency and the Lucknow session of the Congress. Although Gandhiji wanted to concentrate on the task of achieving independence and did not want to speculate about the future of India, this did not stop the Congress Party from adopting socialism as its goal. In 1938 Gandhi clashed with newly elected President Subhash Chandra Bose, who had earlier expressed his disbelief in nonviolence as a means of protest. [144] Despite Gandhiji's opposition, Bose supported Gandhiji's candidature. Gandhiji declared that Sitaramaiah's defeat was his defeat. Bose later left the Congress when all-India leaders resigned en masse in protest against the abandonment of the principles proposed by Gandhiji.

Journey End:-

At 5:17 pm on January 30, 1948, Gandhi was on his way to address a prayer meeting with his sisters in the garden of Birla House (now Gandhi Memorial), According to some accounts, Gandhiji died instantly from a pistol shot at close range. According to other accounts, as submitted by an eyewitness journalist, Gandhi was taken to a bedroom in Birla House. There, a member of Gandhiji's family was reciting verses from Hindu scriptures when he died about 30 minutes later.

Principles, Practices and Beliefs:-

Gandhi's statements, letters, and life have attracted political and scholarly analysis of his theories, practices, and beliefs, including what shaped him as an influence and a character.

Truth and Satyagraha:-

Gandhi dedicated his life to the search and discovery of truth and called his movement Satyagraha, which means "calling, demanding or upholding truth." presented it in a session of Congress as a "resolution of non-cooperation." Dennis Dalton says that it was the creation and movement of Satyagraha that was deeply connected to the beliefs and culture of his people, brought him into public consciousness and immediately transformed him into a Mahatma.

Cost:-

Time magazine named Gandhi its Man of the Year in 1930. In the same magazine's 1999 list of the most important people of the century, Gandhi ranked second behind Albert Einstein, whom Gandhi called "the greatest man of our time." had said. D. This is indicated by the title. In 1937, the Government of India awarded the annual Gandhi Peace Prize to outstanding social workers, world leaders, and citizens. One notable non-Indian recipient was Nelson Mandela, the leader of South Africa's struggle to end racial discrimination and segregation. In 2011, Gandhi topped Time’s list of the 25 greatest political symbols.

Gandhi did not win the Nobel Prize, although he was nominated five times between 1937 and 1948, including his first nomination by the American Friendship Service Committee. Still, he was chosen only twice, in 1937 and 1947. Nobel decades later The committee publicly regretted the omission, and deeply divided nationalist opinion was adopted in rejecting the award. Gandhi was nominated in 1948 but was assassinated before the nomination was completed. That year the committee decided not to award the Peace Prize, saying there was "no suitable living candidate", and subsequent research shows that the possibility of awarding Gandhi a posthumous prize was discussed and no suitable living candidate was found. 

Father of the Nation:-

Indians often refer to Gandhi as the father of the nation. The title is believed to be from Subhash Chandra Bose's radio address (on Radio Singapore) of July 6, 1944, in which Bose referred to Gandhi as the "Father of the Nation". On April 28, 1947, Sarojini Naidu also called Gandhi the "Father of the Nation" nation" at a conference. He was also been conferred the title of "Bapu" (Gujarati: father's, father's beloved).

 

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Film, Theater, and Literature:-

The Life of Gandhi, 1869–1948 is a five-hour and nine-minute biographical documentary made by Vithalbhai Jhaveri in 1968, which documents Gandhi's period using archival footage captured and photographed in black and white. Which reflects history. Ben Kingsley played him in Richard Attenborough's 1982 film Gandhi, which won the Academy Award for Best Picture. It was based on the biography of Louis Fischer. The 1996 film The Making of the Mahatma documents Gandhiji's time in South Africa and his transformation from an inexperienced lawyer to an established political leader.
In 1967, Gandhi appeared on the album cover of one of The Beatles' best-selling albums, Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, although this idea was later abandoned out of respect for Gandhiji.
American composer Philip Glass's 1979 opera Satyagraha is based on the life of Gandhi. The libretto of this opera is originally from the Bhagavad Gita sung in Sanskrit.
In 1995, the Marathi play Gandhi Vs. Gandhi investigated the relationship between his son and Harilal. The 2007 film Gandhi Mere Pita was based on this theme. The 1989 Marathi play With Nathuram Godse Bolotoy and the 1997 Indian play Gandhi Ambedkar criticized Gandhi and his principles.
Many biographers have done the work of describing the life of Gandhiji. In this D.G. is also included. Tendulkar is also included. The Life of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi in eight volumes, Chaman Nahal, Pyarelal, and Sushila Nair have included the Gandhi Chaturbhuj in ten volumes including their Mahatma Gandhi. Joseph Lelyveld's 2010 biography The Great Spirit: Mahatma Gandhi and His Struggle with India featured controversial material leading to speculation on Gandhi's mature life, but Lelyveld said the press coverage made the overall message of the book "too distorted". " done. The 2014 film Welcome Back Gandhi takes a fictional look at how Gandhi might react to modern India. How Gandhi developed the values of truth and nonviolence in the 2019 play Bharat Bhagya Vidhan, inspired by Pujya Gurudev Shri Rakeshbhai and produced by Sangeet Academy Shrimad Rajchandra Mission Dharampur.
"Mahatma Gandhi" was used in Cole Porter's song "You're the Top" in the 1934 musical Anything Goes. In the song, Porter rhymes 'Mahatma Gandhi' with 'Napoleon Brandy'.
Kris Kristofferson's song "They Killed Him" mentions Gandhi.

Current impact within India:- 

With rapid economic modernization and urbanization, India has rejected Gandhian economics but continues to honor his memory by adopting his polypolitics. Correspondent Jim Yardley says, "Modern India has never been a Gandhian nation. His rural romanticism and his vision of a village-based economy as a tradition of individual asceticism were sidelined in his lifetime." 

October 2, Gandhiji's birthday, is a national holiday in India, Gandhi Jayanti. Apart from the one rupee note, Gandhi's image also appears on paper currency of all denominations issued by the Reserve Bank of India. 30 January is celebrated as Martyr's Day in India on the passing anniversary of Gandhiji.
 One in Sambalpur in Odisha, the second in Nidaghat village near Kadur in Chikmagalur district of Karnataka, and the third in Chitayil in Nalgonda district of Telangana. The Gandhi Memorial in Kanyakumari resembles a central Indian Hindu temple and the Tamukkam or Summer Palace in Madurai now houses the Mahatma Gandhi Museum.
 

 

 

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Gandhi Jayanti, celebrated on 2 October, is the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, the leader of India's independence movement.

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